Summary 1: A Path to Sustainable Energy by 2030
Mark Jacobson and Mark Delucchi do not think that the US energy can be replaced by wind, water and solar energy in just ten years. This WWS (wind, water and solar energy) transition is the best way to go in other to largely eliminate pollution. Jacobson and Delucchi suggest that there should be a shift from green house gases and dirty fossil fuels to renewable energy and cleaner technologies and they believe that we change improve on these changes by 2030. The authors suggest the introduction of water machines, wind turbines and solar devices with no use of fossil fuels will decrease the global power demand from 12.5TW to 11.5TW. Low cost sources are concentrated in China because the implements that would be needed for the WWS infrastructure will be expensive or hard to find. The combination of the wind and solar energy will help meet our needs because the wind often blows during stormy conditions when the sun does not shine and the sun often shines on calm days with little wind. Finally the authors discus that the problem to WWS energy system is political and not technical. Therefore one way that they suggest to ease this system of raising money is by creating subsidies and taxing fossil fuel etc. and countries will have to invest in the WWS invention. The authors advise that we have to commit to renewable energy goals.
Over the years, society has spent enormous amounts of money to build the current energy system. Why does this make it difficult to change to a new energy system?
Answer: this system will be hard to implement because humans are scared of cost. as we have seen in the reading, the whole process and the tools are going to cost a lot and take time to implement and based on this, it will be hard for people to commit to it or support WWS. Change is hard to commit to, we are all used to the old fossil fuels usage and it will hard for us to change our old habit and start committing to new even though we know it will help us.
Summary 2: Women’s Indigenous Knowledge and Biodiversity Conservation
Ecofeminists are ecological feminists that see the importance between the domination of women and the domination of nature in a patriarchal society. One of the reasons of the extinction of diversity in our biological world is because the society has categorized women as the “second class” because they are unable to cope the differences in the diversity. While the society is increasing patriarchy by valuing men and making women inferior and unequal to men, there is a reduction in biodiversity. Vandana argues that the only way in increase survival and sustainability is by making use of our biological resources and its diversity, that means we should stop sexism and count women as equals. Vandana argues that the work that women do including in agriculture is invisible and this is not good for the biodiversity and neither is it any good because studies have shown that women in India are the major producers of food because they put in more hours, value and volume into it. Due to the introduction of technology in agriculture, has reduced the roles of women in agriculture, the importance of women has been diminished because they are now seen as the consumers. This technology in agriculture has also increased the use of genetically engineered seeds and this has risks because there might be a decrease in the nutritional value of the food, the risk of allergies to food might increase, the food might be harmful to farm animals and so on. And with the decrease with women in agriculture and an increase in technology, we tend to use more chemicals because there is the believe that without these chemicals, many people will starve.
What is an “ecofeminist”?
Answer: these are activist and ecological feminists that see the connection between the domination of women and the domination of nature under the patriarchal social.
Integration of summaries:
The first summary talks about how we can switch from fossil fuels to WWS (water, wind and solar energy) and other renewable resources to reduce environmental pollution. While the second summary is about how the use of technology has reduced the amount of women that are agriculture, and how our nature and biodiversity is affected by the patriarchy society and sexism.
In my opinion, these article talk about the way fossil fuels and technologies negatively impact the environment negatively by causing pollution, reducing the women labour in agriculture and genetically modifying food products that can lead to loss of nutrients and other effects. I feel like although fossil fuels is one of the main causes of pollution in our environment, it is hard to do without it and one of the ways that we can reduce the pollution is by reducing the use of fossil fuels.
In the article about the disadvantages of fossil fuels, they mention that fossil fuels are non-renewable resources that is divided family into oil, natural gas and coal. The article also continues by mentioning the negative effect of fossil fuels in our environment which are it can lead to global warming when we constantly burn fossil fuels, it can be toxic to human health, it is a non-renewable resource and we can run out of it because we tend to over depend on it. A way that I believe can help us to prevent global warming due to the excess use of fossil fuels is to switch from fossil fuels to WWS (wind, water and solar energy) like Mark Jacobson suggested, we can also repair leaky natural pipelines and facilities, we can store carbon in our environment by planting more trees, reduce the transmission of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, make use of more sustainable agriculture, improve energy efficiency and transfer energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies to developing countries.
Can parks meet its dual mandate of access and protection?
Answer: in my opinion, it will be unable for parks to meet the dual mandate of access and protection because it is impossible to give protection to everyone that gets into the park, the humans are also in danger of the wild animals that may be available in the park or the zoo.
How can this be achieved in Wapusk?
Due to the location of the park, only a few people like students on trip or researcher are usually on elf the few to access this park, and because it is not very easy to be accessed it is easier to protect the park. therefore Wapusk is able to meet the mandate of access and protection.
What role, if any, should zoos play in conservation / education?
Answer: the zoos be create recreational and educational purposes, that means the zoo should contains animals and a clear background, history of the animal. The zoo should help in the preservation of animal history and the animals that have gone extinct and do not exist anymore
Is it ethical to keep animals in zoos?
Answer: it is ethical to keep animals in the zoo because that is what the zoo was created for.
If so, what size / type of animal or zoo?
Answer: the animals that should be present in the zoo are the animals that can be trained and tamed even though they are dangerous or not.
Do you enjoy visiting zoos?
Answer: yes, I do enjoy visiting the zoo even though I have only been to the zoo a few times, I enjoyed my visits there
Should Tar Sands production continue?
Answer: In my opinion I believe it should continue because it is a necessity for us even though it is a green house gas that its continuous production can lead to pollution. I will conclude that its production continues, but steps and methods should be taken to minimize the long term negative effects that it will have on our environment.
If so – How?
Answer: the production should continue in a way that will cost us the lose of our fossil fuels at some point due to excessive use or lead to global warming due to the release of excess pollution. The production should continue in a way that is not harmful for anyone and if there be any alternatives, then we should make use of the alternatives.
Should production be regulated?
Answer: yes, it should be regulated into a better and more environment friendly means, because there are more cleaner ways and certain alternatives for us as Mark Jacobson has suggested.
See if you can go one full day without using fossil fuels. Consider all of the fossil fuels used for transportation, heating and disposable plastic containers.
Answer: I tried going a whole day without fossil fuels and I found that it was really hard, I live far from school and I had to take the bus to school, but I tried to not turn on the heater in my room even though it started becoming cold at night, but later I gave up and turned it on before I could have frozen to death. I feel like no matter how hard we try to avoid using fossil fuels, we cannot completely abstain from it because it is currently one of our main means of survival because we need it, we need it for heat and for transportation and theres is currently no substitute for it.
Shiva, Vandana. “Women’s Indigenous Knowledge and Biodiversity Conservation”. Sources: Selections in Environmental Studies. USA: McGraw-Hill Education, 2014. 200-203. Web. 2 Nov. 2016.
Jacobson, Mark Z., and Mark A. Delucchi. “A Path to Sustainable Energy by 2030”. Sources: Selections in Environmental Studies. USA: McGraw-Hill Education, 2014. 72-75. VitalSource Bookshelf Online. Web. 2 Nov. 2016.